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ROKSO
The Register of Known Spam Operations
Alan Ralsky

Evidence Menu:

Alan Ralsky Index


Country: United States
State: Michigan
Convicted fraudster, spams using hijacked proxies & virus infected PCs and in the past by hijacking mail servers and mail accounts. One of the first people to host spam-websites in China to evade US law. Served years in prison due to stock-fraud spamming, but soon after being released, seemed to get right back into spamming.


Alan Ralsky SBL Listings History
Current SBL Listings
Archived SBL Listings

PARTNERS IN SPAM: John Bown / Mark Bown : GDC Layer One / lyr1.com


Partner in spam of - well, just about every one of the top-5 ROKSO (Ralsky, Richter, Waggoner...) spammers over the years!

States he doesn't like spam. Sadly, his like of money is trumping his dislike of spam.

President & CEO
John Bown
858-748-0679
jb@lyr1.com

http://www.spamhaus.org/sbl/sbl.lasso?query=SBL22628
_________

John Bown & William Neil GDC Layer One Inc. @ http://www.ptc.org/about_us/listing_org.asp

Domain Name: LYR1.COM
Registrar: ABACUS AMERICA, INC. DBA NAMES4EVER
Whois Server: whois.names4ever.com
Referral URL: http://www.names4ever.com
Name Server: NS.LYR1.COM
Name Server: NS2.LYR1.COM
Status: ACTIVE
Updated Date: 01-sep-2004
Creation Date: 21-dec-2000
Expiration Date: 21-dec-2007


Domain name: lyr1.com

Registrant:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Administrative Contact:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Technical Contact:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Billing Contact:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Record last updated on 2004-08-17 00:00:00
Record created on 2000-12-20 00:00:00
Record expires on 2007-12-21 00:00:00

Domain servers in listed order:
ns1.abac.com 216.55.128.4
ns2.abac.com


Registrar: NAMES4EVER, http://www.names4ever.com



--- DNS lookup for "lyr1.com", please wait...
--- contacting nameserver: ns.lyr1.com [209.234.193.157]

lyr1.com SOA
origin = ns.lyr1.com
mail addr = dnsadmin@lyr1.com
serial = 2005011801
refresh = 8400 (2 hours 20 mins)
retry = 3600 (1 hour)
expire = 64800 (18 hours)
minimum ttl = 86400 ()
lyr1.com NS ns2.lyr1.com
lyr1.com NS ns.lyr1.com
lyr1.com MX 10 mail.lyr1.com
lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
ns.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
ns2.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
mail.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157

--- DNS Lookup completed

_________________

Domain Name: NAGUS.NET
Registrar: GO DADDY SOFTWARE, INC.
Whois Server: whois.godaddy.com
Referral URL: http://registrar.godaddy.com
Name Server: NS.NAGUS.NET
Name Server: NS.GOLDCORE.NET
Status: ACTIVE
Updated Date: 29-aug-2004
Creation Date: 07-jan-2000
Expiration Date: 07-jan-2005


Registrant:
Mark V.A Bown
222 Hamptons Square N.W.
Calgary, Alberta t3a 5l1
Canada

Registered through: GoDaddy.com
Domain Name: NAGUS.NET
Created on: 07-Jan-00
Expires on: 07-Jan-06
Last Updated on: 07-Jan-05

Administrative Contact:
Bown, Mark mark.bown@gmail.com
Nagus Communications
222 Hamptons Square N.W.
Calgary, Alberta t3a 5l1
Canada
4032081964 Fax -- 4032081964
Technical Contact:
Bown, Mark mark.bown@gmail.com
Nagus Communications
222 Hamptons Square N.W.
Calgary, Alberta t3a 5l1
Canada
4032081964 Fax -- 4032081964

Domain servers in listed order:
NS.NAGUS.NET
NS.GOLDCORE.NET


--- DNS lookup for "nagus.net", please wait...
--- contacting nameserver: ns.nagus.net [209.234.193.152]

nagus.net SOA
origin = nagus.net
mail addr = mark@nagus.net.nagus.net
serial = 2004090200
refresh = 86400 ()
retry = 3600 (1 hour)
expire = 3600000 (41 days 16 hours)
minimum ttl = 86400 ()
nagus.net NS ns.nagus.net
nagus.net NS ns.goldcore.net
nagus.net MX 10 mail.nagus.net
nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
ftp.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
mail.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
ns.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
pop3.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
smaug.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
smtp.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
www.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152

--- DNS Zone transfer completed
_________________

Related -

Domain Name: GOLDCORE.NET
Registrar: GO DADDY SOFTWARE, INC.
Whois Server: whois.godaddy.com
Referral URL: http://registrar.godaddy.com
Name Server: NS.ARCHAVEN.NET
Name Server: NS.GOLDCORE.NET
Status: REGISTRAR-LOCK
Updated Date: 18-jan-2005
Creation Date: 25-sep-2003
Expiration Date: 25-sep-2005

Registrant:
Gold Core Designs
452 W. Nees Ave
Apt. 279
Fresno, California 93711
United States

Registered through: GoDaddy.com
Domain Name: GOLDCORE.NET
Created on: 25-Sep-03
Expires on: 25-Sep-05
Last Updated on: 25-Sep-04

Administrative Contact:
Johnston, Brian deimios@unholy.net
Gold Core Designs
452 W. Nees Ave
Apt. 279
Fresno, California 93711
United States
(559) 974-3910 Fax --
Technical Contact:
Johnston, Brian deimios@unholy.net
Gold Core Designs
452 W. Nees Ave
Apt. 279
Fresno, California 93711
United States
(559) 974-3910 Fax --

Domain servers in listed order:
NS.GOLDCORE.NET
NS.ARCHAVEN.NET

_________________

Domain Name: ARCHAVEN.NET
Registrar: NETWORK SOLUTIONS, LLC.
Whois Server: whois.networksolutions.com
Referral URL: http://www.networksolutions.com
Name Server: NS.ARCHAVEN.NET
Name Server: NS2.ARCHAVEN.NET
Status: REGISTRAR-LOCK
Updated Date: 25-jan-2005
Creation Date: 23-feb-1999
Expiration Date: 23-feb-2007


Registrant:
Townsend, Ann
Archaven
1006 W. Brown Ave.
FRESNO, CA 93705
US

Domain Name: ARCHAVEN.NET

Administrative Contact:
Townsend, Ann ann@archavendesigns.com
Archaven
1006 W. Brown Ave.
FRESNO, CA 93705
US
559-217-2390 fax: 559-275-9875

Technical Contact:
Networks, Gold Core dns@goldcore.net
Gold Core Networks
1006 W. Brown Ave.
Fresno, CA 93705
US
559-22GOLD3

Record expires on 23-Feb-2007.
Record created on 23-Feb-1999.
Database last updated on 6-Apr-2005 20:12:01 EDT.

Domain servers in listed order:

NS.ARCHAVEN.NET 209.218.130.34
NS2.ARCHAVEN.NET 66.243.142.7

_________________



Assitant Route Manager
Robert Marquez
858-748-0679
rmarquez@lyr1.com

Former Optigate also - Scott Richter's (and every other spammers) favorite corrupt (now out of biz) network.

http://www.voipproviderslist.com/provider/Optigate%20Networks%20Inc./

Robert Marquez
msn: lyr1bobby@hotmail.com

http://www.lyr1.com/dts/datacenters.html

>Advantage Financial Services
>13257 Treecrest Street, Poway, CA 92064
>Tel: (858) 748-0679

San Diego area.
Not in Calif biz records.
Their old gig before getting into networking?

Old address?

Layer One
14781 Pomerado Rd # 191 , 2210 San Joaquin St
Poway, CA 92064
Main Phone: 858-748-0679

________

After the rogue spam network company Optigate went belly-up, Waggoner decided to violate the CAN-SPAM law and hijack their unrouted IP space to send spam from.

He probably had help:

OrgTechHandle: ZZ2655-ARIN
OrgTechName: bown, mark
OrgTechPhone: +1-559-683-8963
OrgTechEmail: mark.bown@optigate.net

A non-dirty company, SierraTel who was associated with Optigate managed to convince ARIN that Optigate was dead and to remove the IP space from the ARIN allocated database (that makes it next to impossible to hijack and route) and the SBL listing was removed. This record is here to show evidence of the crime.

_____________________________________

From SBL12093 209.17.64.0/19
From SBL20209 65.60.48.0/20
From SBL12094 65.60.0.0/18

Company out of biz, assets (ab)used by Richter and Waggoner to spam with.

_____

2004-07-07 - removed; feed changed back to Optigate for easier d/b search.

http://www.optigate.net/policy.htm

2004-06-13

Has Optigate gotten rid of all of Richter's routing, DNS, and unSWiPed spam source blocks?

("Feed" changed from Optigate to ARIN - direct allocation to spammer. Pointer record to the Optigate routing now at SBL17169.)

______

Paid well it seems to host spammers Scott Richter (Wholesalebandwidth), Bill Waggoner, Omegaleads, Webfinity/Python, Rossman & Cole, and other.

OrgName: Optigate Networks Inc
OrgID: OPTI
Address: 40356 Oakpark Way
Address: Suite V
City: Oakhurst
StateProv: CA
PostalCode: 93644
Country: US

NetRange: 209.17.64.0 - 209.17.95.255
CIDR: 209.17.64.0/19
NetName: OPTIGATE
NetHandle: NET-209-17-64-0-1
Parent: NET-209-0-0-0-0
NetType: Direct Allocation
NameServer: NS.OPTIGATE.NET
NameServer: NS2.OPTIGATE.NET
Comment: ADDRESSES WITHIN THIS BLOCK ARE NON-PORTABLE
RegDate: 1997-02-13
Updated: 2002-11-05

TechHandle: NOC133-ORG-ARIN
TechName: OptiGate Networks, Inc.
TechPhone: +1-559-683-0837
TechEmail: admin@optigate.net

OrgAbuseHandle: ABUSE171-ARIN
OrgAbuseName: Abuse
OrgAbusePhone: +1-888-464-0837
OrgAbuseEmail: abuse@optigate.net

OrgNOCHandle: NRC-ARIN
OrgNOCName: Network Response Center
OrgNOCPhone: +1-888-464-0837
OrgNOCEmail: nrc@optigate.net

OrgTechHandle: ZZ2655-ARIN
OrgTechName: bown, mark
OrgTechPhone: +1-559-683-8963
OrgTechEmail: mark.bown@optigate.net






2004-06-13 -- still hosting Richter:

--- DNS lookup for "realbigcash.com", please wait...
--- contacting nameserver: 209.17.66.100 [209.17.66.100]

realbigcash.com NS dns2.optigate.net
realbigcash.com NS dns1.optigate.net
dns1.optigate.net A 209.17.66.100
dns2.optigate.net A 209.17.66.79

traceroute to 209.17.66.100 [209.17.66.100],
...
11 [ 64.125.28.142] pos5-0.mpr1.pao1.us.above.net 40 ms
12 [ 64.124.11.205] above-gw.optigate.net 30 ms
13 [ 209.17.65.54] sfo-cr1.paix-pr1.optigate.net 50 ms
14 [ 209.17.65.29] fat-cr1.sfo-cr1.optigate.net 40 ms
15 [ 209.17.66.100] dns1.optigate.net 40 ms


_______________________________________________

From SBL20209 65.60.48.0/20


AS27219: MDL-23 Media Dream Land Inc.
Prefix (AS Path) Aggregation Action
65.60.48.0/20 4637 6395 29761 27219 <===
69.6.56.0/22 4637 6395 29761 27219
69.42.96.0/19 4637 6395 29761 27219 + Announce - aggregate of 69.42.96.0/20 (4637 6395 29761 27219) and 69.42.112.0/20 (4637 6395 29761 27219)
69.42.96.0/20 4637 6395 29761 27219 - Withdrawn - aggregated with 69.42.112.0/20 (4637 6395 29761 27219)
69.42.112.0/20 4637 6395 29761 27219 - Withdrawn - aggregated with 69.42.96.0/20 (4637 6395 29761 27219)
209.17.66.0/24 4637 6395 29761 27219



OrgName: Optigate Networks Inc
OrgID: OPTI
Address: 40356 Oakpark Way
Address: Suite V
City: Oakhurst
StateProv: CA
PostalCode: 93644
Country: US

NetRange: 65.60.0.0 - 65.60.63.255
CIDR: 65.60.0.0/18
NetName: OPTI-BLK2
NetHandle: NET-65-60-0-0-1
Parent: NET-65-0-0-0-0
NetType: Direct Allocation
NameServer: PONGO.CALGATE.NET
NameServer: DNS2.OPTIGATE.NET
Comment:
RegDate: 2002-10-28
Updated: 2004-02-04

OrgAbuseHandle: ABUSE171-ARIN
OrgAbuseName: Abuse
OrgAbusePhone: +1-888-464-0837
OrgAbuseEmail: abuse@optigate.net

OrgNOCHandle: NRC-ARIN
OrgNOCName: Network Response Center
OrgNOCPhone: +1-888-464-0837
OrgNOCEmail: nrc@optigate.net

OrgTechHandle: HBA10-ARIN
OrgTechName: BAKER, HARRY
OrgTechPhone: +1-559-683-4611
OrgTechEmail: KKforHHB@stcg.net




traceroute to 65.60.62.138 (65.60.62.138), 64 hops max, 44 byte packets

[...]
7 so-7-0-0.cr1.dca2.us.above.net (64.125.31.186) 79.422 ms 79.198 ms 80.290 ms
8 pos11-0.mpr2.atl4.us.above.net (64.125.29.37) 132.553 ms 132.558 ms 132.721 ms
9 pos12-0.mpr1.atl4.us.above.net (64.125.30.233) 132.695 ms 132.563 ms 319.659 ms
10 so-4-3-0.mpr2.iah1.us.above.net (64.125.31.25) 102.839 ms 103.197 ms 103.010 ms
11 so-0-0-0.mpr1.iah1.us.above.net (64.125.31.61) 103.044 ms 103.182 ms 103.747 ms
12 so-4-1-0.mpr2.lax9.us.above.net (64.125.29.101) 132.709 ms 132.555 ms 132.470 ms
13 64.125.129.125.available.above.net (64.125.129.125) 132.453 ms 132.539 ms 134.411 ms
14 66-154-116-2.assertivenetworks.net (66.154.116.2) 133.282 ms 132.995 ms 132.854 ms
15 oc3-colo-lax.gig-1-2.oc3networks.com (66.63.166.250) 132.673 ms 132.735 ms 132.716 ms
16 mediadreamland-gw.gig-1-4.oc3networks.com (66.63.166.226) 132.946 ms 133.151 ms 133.097 ms
17 host-62-138.woodinternet.net (65.60.62.138) 132.683 ms 133.033 ms 132.807 ms
______________________________________________

From:
http://www.spamhaus.org/sbl/sbl.lasso?query=SBL22628

Partner in spam of - well, just about every one of the top US ROKSO spammers over the years!

States he doesn't like spam. Sadly, his like of money has always trumped this "dislike of spam."

President & CEO
John Bown
858-748-0679
jb@lyr1.com

__

General Information
Write to:
2210 San Joaquin St
Fresno Ca, 93721

Or Call:
888 367 5971

Or Email:
info@lyr1.com
_________

[209.234.193.157]
NS1.LYR1.COM
NS2.LYR1.COM
NS.LYR1.COM

@NS.LYR1.COM
a2details.com
_________

--- Found authoritative nameserver: ns.lyr1.com
--- contacting nameserver: ns.lyr1.com [209.234.193.157]

lyr1.com SOA
origin = lyr1.com
mail addr = root@lyr1.com
serial = 20050903
refresh = 604800 (7 days)
retry = 86400 ()
expire = 2419200 (28 days)
minimum ttl = 86400 ()
lyr1.com NS ns.lyr1.com
lyr1.com MX 10 mail.lyr1.com
lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
ns.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
mail.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157

--- DNS Lookup completed

_________

--- DNS lookup for "lyr1.com", please wait...
--- contacting nameserver: ns.lyr1.com [209.234.193.157]

lyr1.com SOA
origin = ns.lyr1.com
mail addr = dnsadmin@lyr1.com
serial = 2005011801
refresh = 8400 (2 hours 20 mins)
retry = 3600 (1 hour)
expire = 64800 (18 hours)
minimum ttl = 86400 ()
lyr1.com NS ns2.lyr1.com
lyr1.com NS ns.lyr1.com
lyr1.com MX 10 mail.lyr1.com
lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
ns.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
ns2.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157
mail.lyr1.com A 209.234.193.157

--- DNS Lookup completed


Domain Name: LYR1.COM
Registrar: ABACUS AMERICA, INC. DBA NAMES4EVER
Whois Server: whois.names4ever.com
Referral URL: http://www.names4ever.com
Name Server: NS.LYR1.COM
Name Server: NS2.LYR1.COM
Status: ACTIVE
Updated Date: 01-sep-2004
Creation Date: 21-dec-2000
Expiration Date: 21-dec-2007


Domain name: lyr1.com

Registrant:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Administrative Contact:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Technical Contact:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Billing Contact:
John Bown (X8NEL) john.bown@optigate.net
GDC Layer One Inc
14781 Pomerado Suite191
Poway, CA 92064
United States
Phone: 8587480679
Fax: 8587480679

Record last updated on 2004-08-17 00:00:00
Record created on 2000-12-20 00:00:00
Record expires on 2007-12-21 00:00:00

Domain servers in listed order:
ns1.abac.com 216.55.128.4
ns2.abac.com


Registrar: NAMES4EVER, http://www.names4ever.com

_________________

Domain Name: NAGUS.NET
Registrar: GO DADDY SOFTWARE, INC.
Whois Server: whois.godaddy.com
Referral URL: http://registrar.godaddy.com
Name Server: NS.NAGUS.NET
Name Server: NS.GOLDCORE.NET
Status: ACTIVE
Updated Date: 29-aug-2004
Creation Date: 07-jan-2000
Expiration Date: 07-jan-2005


Registrant:
Mark V.A Bown
222 Hamptons Square N.W.
Calgary, Alberta t3a 5l1
Canada

Registered through: GoDaddy.com
Domain Name: NAGUS.NET
Created on: 07-Jan-00
Expires on: 07-Jan-06
Last Updated on: 07-Jan-05

Administrative Contact:
Bown, Mark mark.bown@gmail.com
Nagus Communications
222 Hamptons Square N.W.
Calgary, Alberta t3a 5l1
Canada
4032081964 Fax -- 4032081964
Technical Contact:
Bown, Mark mark.bown@gmail.com
Nagus Communications
222 Hamptons Square N.W.
Calgary, Alberta t3a 5l1
Canada
4032081964 Fax -- 4032081964

Domain servers in listed order:
NS.NAGUS.NET
NS.GOLDCORE.NET


--- DNS lookup for "nagus.net", please wait...
--- contacting nameserver: ns.nagus.net [209.234.193.152]

nagus.net SOA
origin = nagus.net
mail addr = mark@nagus.net.nagus.net
serial = 2004090200
refresh = 86400 ()
retry = 3600 (1 hour)
expire = 3600000 (41 days 16 hours)
minimum ttl = 86400 ()
nagus.net NS ns.nagus.net
nagus.net NS ns.goldcore.net
nagus.net MX 10 mail.nagus.net
nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
ftp.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
mail.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
ns.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
pop3.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
smaug.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
smtp.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152
www.nagus.net A 209.234.193.152

--- DNS Zone transfer completed

_________


Assitant Route Manager
Robert Marquez
858-748-0679
rmarquez@lyr1.com

Former Optigate also - Scott Richter's (and every other spammers) favorite corrupt (now out of biz) network.

http://www.voipproviderslist.com/provider/Optigate%20Networks%20Inc./

Robert Marquez
msn: lyr1bobby@hotmail.com

http://www.lyr1.com/dts/datacenters.html

>Advantage Financial Services
>13257 Treecrest Street, Poway, CA 92064
>Tel: (858) 748-0679

San Diego area.
Not in Calif biz records.
Their old gig before getting into networking?

Old address?

Layer One
14781 Pomerado Rd # 191 , 2210 San Joaquin St
Poway, CA 92064
Main Phone: 858-748-0679

_______________________________

Domain Name: A2DETAILS.COM
Registrar: ABACUS AMERICA, INC. DBA NAMES4EVER
Whois Server: whois.names4ever.com
Referral URL: http://www.names4ever.com
Name Server: NS.LYR1.COM
Status: ok
Updated Date: 05-may-2006
Creation Date: 24-apr-2006
Expiration Date: 24-apr-2008

Domain name: a2details.com

Registrant:
Matthew Bown (WGSZZ) mateotomasdeesc@yahoo.com
14781 Pomerado
Poway, Ca 92064
United States
Phone: +1 (760) 415-3346

Administrative Contact:
Matthew Bown (LYXHN) mateotomasdeesc@yahoo.com
14781 Pomerado
Poway, Ca 92064
United States
Phone: +1 (760) 415-3346

Technical Contact:
Matthew Bown (WGSZZ) mateotomasdeesc@yahoo.com
14781 Pomerado
Poway, Ca 92064
United States
Phone: +1 (760) 415-3346

Billing Contact:
Matthew Bown (SSNJJ) mateotomasdeesc@yahoo.com
14781 Pomerado
Poway, Ca 92064
United States
Phone: +1 (760) 415-3346

Record last updated on 2006-05-05 00:00:00
Record created on 2006-04-24 00:00:00
Record expires on 2008-04-24 00:00:00

Domain servers in listed order:

Registration Service Provider: AplusNet(APRO)
apro-n4e-racc@abac.com

http://www.aplus.net

Registrar: NAMES4EVER, http://www.names4ever.com
___________________________________


Registrant:
Reliable Supply Corporation
650 South Grand
Suite 700-20
Los Angeles, CA 90017
US
4036971810


Domain Name: CLICKITDEPOT.COM

Administrative Contact:
Bown, Michael mgbown@yahoo.com
650 South Grand
Suite 700-20
Los Angeles, CA 90017
US
4036971810
___________________________________



The Register of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO) collates information and evidence on entities with a history of spamming or providing spam services, and entities affiliated or otherwise connected with them, for the purpose of assisting ISP Abuse Desks and Law Enforcement Agencies.
The address of this ROKSO record is: https://www.spamhaus.org/rokso/evidence/ROK4960/

The above consists of information in the public domain. The Spamhaus Project makes every effort to avoid errors in information in the ROKSO database, and will correct any errors as soon as it is able to verify the correction, but accepts no responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions, or liability for any loss or damage, consequential or otherwise, incurred in reliance on the material in these pages. The Spamhaus Project makes no warranties or representations as to the accuracy of the Information in ROKSO records. The information in the ROKSO database is for information purposes only and is not intended as legal advice of any kind.

For information on contacting the ROKSO Team regarding any factual errors in this record, see the ROKSO FAQs.
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