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Spamhaus SBL

What is the SBL?
SBL Listing Criteria
How do I use the SBL?
How much spam will the SBL block for me?
I hear the SBL can also block domains, how? What is "URIBL_SBL"?
Can the SBL block legitimate email?
Can the SBL be used to block more than just spam?
How often is the SBL zone updated?
How do I test my SBL setup?
How do I keep my network's IP blocks out of the SBL?
I am an end user. How can remove my IP(s) from the SBL ?
I am a system administrator. How can remove my IP(s) from the SBL ?
I found an SBL removal request form letter on the web!
When will Spamhaus remove my IP(s) from the SBL?
How often are listings re-checked?
Is there any fee for SBL removal?

What is the SBL?
The Spamhaus Block List (SBL) is a realtime database of IP addresses of spam-sources, including known spammers, spam gangs, spam operations and spam support services. SBL listings are made according to policies outlined in SBL Policy & Listing Criteria.

The database is maintained every day, around the clock, by Spamhaus Project team members around the world.

SBL Listing Criteria

The criteria for listing IP addresses in the SBL is:

SBL Listing Criteria
Spam Sources
Sources of unsolicited bulk email identified by Spamhaus
Snowshoe spam ranges
Snowshoe spam style configurations, particularly ranges and domains with poor or frequently changing identification
Spam Hosting
IPs that host spam-advertised websites or other resources used by spammers or malware operations
Spam Operations
Known spam or malware operations listed in the Spamhaus Register of Known Spam Operations (ROKSO)
Spam Services
IPs that host services that support spam or malware operations, including but not limited to:

Bulletproof hosting. DNS, web, mail or other services provided with either explicit or tacit actions not to disconnect customers who spam or engage in cybercrime.

Spamware. Sales or distribution of software whose main purpose is to aid in the sending of high volume unsolicited bulk email.

Scrapers. Sales or distribution of software whose main purpose is to automatically collect email addresses from web sites or whois records.

List providers. Providers of email lists without explicit, informed and prior consent.

Email appenders. Services that append email addresses to existing lists of names or companies.
Security Threats
Any IP address that is deemed to be a security risk to Spamhaus SBL users, including but not limited to:

Botnet controllers. IPs that host botnet command and control (C&C) servers.

Malware. IPs that host malware-infected websites or other resources that participate in any aspect of attempting to infect other computers, or extract data or personal information, without the knowledge or consent of their owners.

Phish sites. IPs that host fake login pages to bank and financial institution websites, customer email accounts, customer web hosting sites, VPNs, and other sites in an attempt to steal sensitive private information and/or login credentials.

Ransomware. IPs that host websites or other resources that participate in any aspect of holding user data for ransom by encrypting it and then demanding payment for the key to decrypt it ("Ransomware").

Hacking Attempts. IPs that are the source of attempts to crack passwords, scan for vulnerabilites, or other attempts to trespass on other computers without the knowledge or consent of their owners.

How do I use the SBL?
The Spamhaus Block List ("SBL") is in a format intended to be used by the mailservers of corporations or ISPs. End users should ask their email provider if they use the SBL, and if not, ask them to implement it. If this is not possible, end users should look for spam filtering software that is able to use "DNSBL" systems (sometimes called "Blacklist DNS Servers" or "RBL servers"). Most will have the SBL (or ZEN, or the older SBL-XBL) as a default or available as an option. Use of the SBL in query mode is free for users with normal mail server traffic (but ISPs and corporate networks with heavy email traffic will need to use our Data Feed service).

The SBL can be used by almost all modern mail servers, by setting your mail server's anti-spam DNSBL feature (sometimes called "Blacklist DNS Servers" or "RBL servers") to query

For information on how to configure your mail server to use please refer to your mail server documentation/manuals or ask your mail server developer. With so many different mail servers in use we can not offer technical help with setting up the SBL.

We recommend you use together with and, as the SBL and XBL/PBL block different spam sources. To save you having to query three separate DNSBL zones, there combined "" zone contains the complete SBL, XBL and PBL data. Your server can safely reject SMTP connections from any IP listed in Zen by simply setting your mail server's DNSBL check to query only. Read the XBL FAQ and PBL FAQ for further information if your application uses second-stage filtering such as URI checks or full header traversal.

We ask, but do not require, that all ISPs using our BL zones inform customers of the fact you run spam filters (simply because it is the correct thing to do). Use of known-to-be-effective spam blocklists is normally seen as a service advantage and strong sales point. All SBL, XBL and PBL users are welcome to use the "email protected by" SBL, XBL and PBL web badges on sites.

How much spam will the SBL block for me?
This depends on a number of factors; how many domains you host, how many email addresses in those domains have been harvested by spammers, pulled out by dictionary attacks, etc.

Current numbers show the SBL can stop, on average, 5-10% of incoming spam at SMTP connection time, and 60-90% of spam in message body URI checks.

The SBL is meant to be used in conjunction with other Blocklists. The SBL targets spammers who host on, or spam from, a fixed location.

Additional systems such as the Spamhaus XBL (Exploits Block List) and the Spamhaus PBL (Policy Block List) should be used to block spam from spammers who use criminal methods to spam. These target spammers using open botnet-proxies - PCs they have infected with viruses. The combination of all three is available in our Spamhaus Zen zone.

See the Spam Filtering Guidewith charts and details on how the Blocklists function.

I hear the SBL can also block domains, how? What is "URIBL_SBL"?
Yes, the SBL can also be used as a URI Blocklist and is particularly effective in this role. In tests, over 60% of spam was found to contain URIs (links to web sites) whose webserver IPs were listed on the SBL. SpamAssassin, for example, includes a feature called URIBL_SBL for this purpose. The technique involves resolving the URI's domain to and IP address and checking that against the SBL zone.

Can the SBL block legitimate email?
The SBL's primary objective is to avoid 'false positives' while blocking as much spam as possible. Indeed because SBL false positives are extremely rare, there is little visible controversy regarding the SBL yet we are one of the Internet's biggest spam blocking systems.

It is important to note that, unlike most commercial ISP-level spam filter solutions, in its most used form, the SBL does not "absorb and trash" incoming email - instead it has a vital delivery fail-safe mechanism: By design, no matter how rare they may be, any false positive rejected by mail servers using the SBL follows correct RFC defined SMTP mail delivery proceedure and is returned ("bounced") to the immediate Sender with the explaination of why the message could not be not delivered and what the Sender should do about it. One of our main objectives is to help keep valid, non-spam email from being lost, or mixed in with hundreds of spam messages where they can be overlooked or automatically trashed as many systems will do.

However, like any system used to filter email, the SBL has the potential to block items of legitimate email if for example they are sent from an IP under the control of a spammer or via IPs belonging to a Spam Service. The chances of any legitimate email coming from such IPs are very slim, but need to be acknowledged.

In order to terminate some persistent spam operations the SBL team occasionally needs to escalate a listing and it is in the application of an escalation that 'collateral damage' can occur. Once a known spam operation is blocked, the SBL team then attempts to open dialogue with the ISP providing service to the spammer and assists the ISP with collating evidence to terminate the spammer. In rare instances the ISP turns out to be knowingly assisting the spam operation for profit. In these cases the SBL Team may deem the ISP itself to be the 'Spam Support Service' and may escalate by listing the ISPs corporate resources (such as corporate mail servers), determined on a case-by-case basis to focus action on the ISPs executives and always with the primary objective of avoiding blocking legitimate customers.

Can the SBL be used to block more than just spam?
Yes. One can deny access to Apache webserver based websites from SBL listed IP addresses.

There is an Apache tool called mod_spamhaus does the job.

This tool probably can replace an earlier tool called mod access rbl. It was designed for Apache 1.3 - but a patch for the 2.x versions was created (as has a newer 2.x only system called mod_dnsbl_lookup). A website that covers it, and exactly how to set up a system like this is located at Got Root? in an article called "How to use RBL's to protect apache from compromised and infected systems."

Do provide a way for denied users to see why they have been denied. Also, note that this is the SBL not the XBL or PBL. The XBL contains dynamic IP addresses, meaning the user you would be blocking is probably not going to be the user with the exploited computer. The PBL just contains large ranges that should not send SMTP. Please do not block innocent users.

With "mod_spamhaus", by default, only POST, PUT, OPTIONS, CONNECT methods are blocked. You can add GET to the list of methods blocked in /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/mod-spamhaus.conf to block the spammers from seeing your website (harvesting email addresses, DDoSing, etc). This webpage called "Using mod_spamhaus to block TOR in Apache" shows this sort of configuration.

On moderate-traffic websites, we really recommend a proper DNS caching system be used, on high traffic sites one must implement our Spamhaus DNSBL Data Feed Service.

How often is the SBL zone updated?
The SBL DNS zone is rebuilt and reloaded every 10 minutes, 24/7, to ensure that new spam problems are swiftly blocked and that fixed problems are swiftly removed. For high redundancy Spamhaus has over 100 public DNSBL mirror servers located around the world. Each mirror is independently run as a free service to the Internet community and all respond in realtime to public queries.

How do I test my SBL setup?
Once you have set up your mail server to use (or the preferred, you can test to see if the SBL blocking is working by sending an email (any email) to: (you must send the email from the mail server which you wish to test). The Crynwr system robot will answer you to tell you if your server is correctly blocking SBL-listed IP addresses or not.

How do I keep my network's IP blocks out of the SBL?
Or "How do I keep my spammers off my network?"

  • Enforce a strong Acceptable Use Policy (AUP).
  • Read postmaster@ and abuse@ mailboxes every day, and act on reports!
  • Maintain accurate and active contact information in "whois" records.
  • Check out new clients at
  • Check out new clients at
  • Be sure that your role accounts & feedback loops are working properly, which includes:
             * Working postmaster@ and abuse@ mailboxes (RFC2822, RFC2142).
             * IP ranges registered with AOL FBL, SpamCop and others.
             * Domains registered with The Network Abuse Clearinghouse (

  • I am an end user. How can remove my IP(s) from the SBL ?
    Contact your system administrator and ask her/him to handle the problem. Keep in mind that SBL listings are always a direct consequence of involvement of a server (or other equipment) with spam, and that technicalities may be involved.

    I am a system administrator. How can remove my IP(s) from the SBL ?
    The removal procedure is described at the bottom of every SBL listing page. Removal requests must be sent by the Internet Service Provider in charge of the listed IP address(es). Therefore, from the system administrator point of view, the process is the following:
    1. Read carefully the SBL listing page and understand what the spam problem is.
    2. Solve the spam problem, making sure that it has been solved permanently.
    3. Contact the Abuse/Security desk of your Internet provider, describe the situation and how the problem was solved (we always need to know how the problem was solved), answer all their questions and, if they agree that the problem has been solved, ask them to send a removal request to the SBL Removals Team (most abuse desks know very well how to do this).

    I found an SBL removal request form letter on the web!
    If you found on the web an application letter like:

    It seems like our server is listed on your spam list, but I don't see any harmful activities on our server. We are providing (DOMAIN) service on that server, http://(DOMAIN)/, which requires email address to use, and sends tons of emails everyday according as user activities (it does not send emails automatically...).

    or one like:

    I'm writing this Email on behalf of [company name]'s network operation center to express our concern on the current Email communication issue with your SPAM list server. We have set up a email service on the IP block [IP addresses] for the domain [domain]. This server serves the entire company's Email service and a lot of our daily business are done over internet. As you can imagine, we are also a victim of Email spams. We have taken every necessary step to ensure we do not receive spam or are taken hostage by spammers. We have upgraded our Email server to support SMTP authentication. We also installed commercial anti-spam gateway products. However, for some historical reasons this IP is still registered as a spam address on your list. So we would greatly appreciate if you may look into your spam filter and have us removed from the blocking list. As a final word, we by no means are spam source or leave our server open for relays. We are in the same trench with you fight against spams.

    or one like:

    Dear SBL Team I am the administrator of the next server. AAA.AAA.AAA.AAA<メールサーバーIPアドレス>/32 (<メールサーバーFQDN>) Please exclude this IP address from the black list.

    or one like:

    (I'm Japanese. Sorry about my poor English.)
    I use my domain as blog(xxxx.DOMAIN). The result of many survey, my site is safety. for example survey site:
    I'm troubled that my domain has become "Twitter spam url". If my domain is spam, please tell me its cause. Thank you.

    please do not send it to the SBL Removals Team. This text is not useful at all.

    The SBL Team takes these form letters as a signal that no effort was done to locate and solve the problem, and that probably the problem was not even understood. Fixed format letters are useless: we need to know how you solved your particular problem. If you are a system administrator, follow the advice in this FAQ.

    When will Spamhaus remove my IP(s) from the SBL?
    After the spammer is removed or the spam problem is otherwise dealt with, the ISP should request removal by by sending a removal request to the SBL removal queue. Click the "contact the SBL Team" mailto link on the bottom of each SBL listing page. While specifics of each listing vary, basically the spam problem must be completely stopped. Here are some of the steps for a general case of a spammer's dedicated account:
    • the server needs to be taken down or disconnected (except if it concerns a virtual or shared server);
    • any PTR entries need to be cleared or set back to its default setting;
    • any DNS entries served by the ISPs main DNS servers for the SBL-listed customer should be cleared;
    • the ISP's MX server should no longer accept mail for the SBL-listed customer;
    • if the IP addresses were SWiP'd or in rWhois, they should be removed or a request for removal to the RIR should have been made.
    The CSS component of the SBL, a spam source IP address zone, has an automated expiration system. Unlike traditional SBL records, SBL CSS records are automatically expired three days after last detection. For this automatic expiration to work, it is vital that all spamming is terminated.

    How often are listings re-checked?
    We only re-check a listing when contacted, there is no automatic re-checking of listings. However to prevent "stale" listings from remaining on the SBL each record has a "time to live" setting after which it is automatically deleted from the SBL. The default "time to live" for a listing is 6-months, however some listings (such as listings for spam-in-progress and snowshoe spam) may be set to short periods such as 48-hours or 3-days. Problem areas and known professional "hard-core" spam operations with netblocks SWiP'd to them by ARIN/RIPE/APNIC/etc may have their record's "time to live" set to one or more years. The system automatically flags listings for review when the "time to live" has expired.

    Is there any fee for SBL removal?
    No. There is never any charge or fee associated with removing any Spamhaus listing.

    Any offer from anyone to remove any Spamhaus listing for you for a fee is a scam. Spamhaus has no affiliation with anyone offering any 'blocklist removal' service, nor can any third party influence or expedite removals from any Spamhaus database.

    Removals of Spamhaus listings are governed by our removals policy only. The criteria for removal from the SBL are explained on the SBL Delisting Procedure page. All removals from the SBL or ROKSO are the sole decision of The Spamhaus Project.

    While there are 'deliverability consultants' who can help improve your email sending practices to meet Spamhaus standards, it is important to know that none of them have any special privilege to influence, expedite or modify SBL or ROKSO listings.

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